I’ve been doing research on the archaeology site survey project — trying to determine where the sites are at Skalanes, without having to excavate the site. I’ve determined that people do what’s called a ‘Geophysical Survey’ which is a non-destructive way to determine where their are sites.
There are differents methods:
- Electrical Resistance
- Using (usually) four metal probes stuck into the ground measuring electrical resistance. Many archaeological site characteristics will have different electrical resistance from their surroundings. For example, a stone wall structure might impede the flow of electricity, and organic materials in soil might conduct electricity more easily.
- Electromagnetic Conductivity
- Measuring the conductivity of the soil. A magnetic field is created underground by sending a current with a known frequency and magnitude. The currents spur a secondary current in underground conductors that is picked up by a receiving coil. Less sensitive than resistance meters.
- Measuring the gradient of the magnetic field of the Earth ( gradiometers), provides resolution of small near-surface occurrences. Magnetometers react very strongly to iron and steel, brick, burned soil, and many types of rock, and archaeological features composed of these materials are very detectable. It is often possible to detect disturbances in organic material.
- Ground Penetrating Radar